This observation is related to their different depths of origin, with kimberlites originating from the asthenospheric upper mantle and lamproites being generated at the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary and formed, in part, from subducted material. color: #007680; 'pertaining to building') is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago. Lithospheric discontinuity. Reproduced from Veizer J (1988b) Continental growth: Comments on ‘The Archean-Proterozoic transition: Evidence from Guyana and Montana’ by A. K. Gibbs, C. W. Montgomery, P. A. O'Day and E. A. Erslev. Plate Tectonics and Volcanic Activity ... Building codes in California require builders to meet standards set to minimize structural damage in an earthquake and coastal cities have building code to reinforce roofs and walls to resist a storm’s high winds. The major structural elements of the Sleipner Area shows a lot of tectonic activity. Rates were derived on the assumption that all deviations from the ideal pattern of the type I age distributions were a consequence of the poor quality of the available database. $(document).ready(function(){$('.MediaTransformError').hide(); Moku`aweoweo, Mauna Loa's 3x5 kilometer caldera, rises about 3,850 meters above sea level. Reproduced from Jiménez-Munt I, Sabadini R, Gardi A, and Bianco G (2003) Active deformation in the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to Anatolia inferred from numerical modeling and geodetic and seismological data. We use cookies to offer you a better experience, personalize content, tailor advertising, provide social media features, and better understand the use of our services. These include the processes of mountain building, the growth and behavior of the strong, old cores of continents known as cratons, and the ways in which the relatively rigid plates that constitute the Earth's outer shell interact with each other. These lateral structural trends create increased permeability for hydrothermal fluid migration where they intersect other major tectonic features. Statistical analysis of the distribution of Baja vents indicates that overall these volcanic fields are elongate parallel to the paleosubduction zone, indicating that partial melt zones reflected the geometry of the subducted slab. L1 and L2 lamproites can contain diamonds derived from garnet harzburgite and eclogite xenoliths. Such velocity fields are based on GPS measurements from Clarke et al. The incompatible element distributions in most anorogenic granites are suggestive of a within-plate tectonic setting. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Earth as an Evolving Planetary System (Third Edition), Rock assemblages that form in modern plate, Sediments, Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rocks, Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition). Nonetheless, it should be noted that the compositional classification of these “C-type or continental adakites” and K-adakites (high K2O contents and K2O/Na2O ratios > 0.7) as “adakites” has been questioned in the literature (see Moyen, 2009). Figure 30. transition: background 0.2s,color 0.2s; Supercontinent. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. AMB = active margin basins, OB = oceanic intraplate basins, OC = oceanic crust, PMB = passive margin basins, and IOB = immature orogenic belts. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "tectonic setting" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. These in turn, can be subdivided into eight tectonic settings . The volcano becomes extinct and cools. Unlike most other rock assemblages, young counterparts are found in different tectonic settings. Plate Tectonic Setting. If an extensive granite-rhyolite province of late Paleozoic to Jurassic age in Argentina represents an anorogenic granite province (Kay et al., 1989), this would favor a continental back-arc setting. top: -1px; This section focuses on the geophysical modeling of continental collision between Africa and Eurasia on the basis of thin-plate theory, which is generalized so as to include the effects of subduction in the Hellenic and Calabria Arcs and on strain rates from permanent GPS receivers in the Mediterranean. These studies have been particularly useful in modern arc systems. Tectonics: Structural setting. T ectonic setting discrimination plo t of SiO 2 vs.K 2 O/ N a 2 O for M eso zoic-Cenozoic sandstones in the Lanping Basin ( Boundary lines for different tectonic setting s from Roser et al. float: right; Although we can sample and study sediments forming in modern plate settings, it is more difficult to study young plutonic and metamorphic rocks and deep-seated deformation. Tectonics (from Latin tectonicus; from Ancient Greek τεκτονικός (tektonikos) 'pertaining to building' ) are the processes that control the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time. Fig. More than 900 scoria cones and related volcanoes (solid black circles) are distributed in volcanic fields along Baja California (Mexico). $("a").each(function(){ As plates move the hot spots remain in place, causing strings of progressively younger volcanoes to form. Kimberlites are part of a suite of volatile-rich, high-MgO, ultrabasic rocks (kimberlites, sensu lato). Elevation (ETOPO5), in kilometers with isolines every 0.5 km, and tectonic sketch map of the study region. La, Ce, Nd, Th, Zr, Nb, Y, Sc and Co are very useful in tectonic setting discrimination. position: relative; Quiz 5 What is the tectonic setting of the east coast of Japan? The South Aegean Volcanic Arc and the tectonic setting of Santorini. See more. Roger H. Mitchell, in Encyclopedia of Geology (Second Edition), 2021. Supracrustal rocks formed at or near the Earth's surface (sediments and volcanics) but lost many of their primary features during metamorphism and deformation. } Tectonic plates are composed of the rigid outer portion of the earth, called lithosphere (from the Greek word "lithos"="rock"). #printPDFButton .print { height: 37px; padding: 6px 9px; The plate beneath the volcano (and above the hot spot) also cools. 34) are barren. In either case only those emplaced in ancient cratons are diamond bearing. Figure 23.6. In spite of the Africa–Arabia versus Eurasia convergence, several regions exhibit extension in the Earth’s crust, such as the Alboran Sea, the Algero-Provençal basin, the Tyrrhenian and the Aegean Seas (topography is given in kilometers by contour lines). The Parkfield section (red) is a transition zone between the creeping and southern locked section. Tectonic setting of Santorini. After Friedrich (1994). The San Andreas fault in central California. $('#printPDFButton').html($a); The molten rock rising from this hot spot is what fuels Hawaii's two volcanos in this park, Mauna Loa and Kilauea. margin: 8px 0 8px 8px; The anorogenic granite event that transcended time from about 1.9 to 1.0 Ga in Laurentia-Baltica is closely tied to a large accretionary orogen of the same age. The latest classification of Ingersoll and Busby (1995) assigns sedimentary basins into five major groups based on their relationship to plate boundaries (Figure 4). This section focuses on the geophysical modeling of continental collision between Africa and Eurasia on the basis of thin-plate theory, which is generalized so as to include the effects of subduction in the Hellenic arc and Calabria Arc and on strain rates from permanent GPS receivers in the Mediterranean. On This Page Navigation. With a thickness of about 100 km, the lithosphere is composed of an upper layer of crust (~7 km thick under the oceans, and ~50 km thick under the continents) and a lower, denser layer of the earth's upper mantle. Consider the Chugoku region of southwest Honshu, Japan (Figure 23.5). The volcano and the plate gradually subside as they move away from the hot spot. Fig. One approach is to examine deep canyons in mountain ranges where relatively young (<50 Ma) deep-seated rocks are exposed and where a tectonic setting can be assigned to these rocks with some confidence. Tectonic setting is Arc collision. This page was last modified on 12 April 2017, at 10:30. Lamproites are shown originating at the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary as: diamond-bearing cratonic types (L1) with sources in ancient cratonic mantle containing ancient metamorphosed/metasomatized (eclogitic) subducted material, e.g., Kaapvaal and Wyoming lamproites; diamond-bearing types (L2) in ancient accreted mobile belts with ancient subducted (eclogitic) material, e.g., Argyle, Wajrakurur lamproites; and diamond-free anorogenic types (L3) within younger mobile belts, e.g., Cancarix, Afyon. var no_domain = href.match('^\s*(/. Gondwana. Learn more. This classification, while it cannot take into account the entire complexity of natural systems, implies that basins associated with transform and convergent boundaries are more prone to destruction than basins associated with divergent and intraplate settings, particularly those developed on continental crust (Figure 4). Kimberlites and lamproites which traverse accreted mobile belts at depths above the diamond stability field (Fig. var iHTML = $('#printPDFButton').html(); var no_proto = href.match('^\s*(//. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. The associated deformation and heat is conducive to high temperature (230-300°C) geothermal systems. Plate tectonics is the large scale movement of Earth's crust, and results in a number of distinct geologic settings. background: rgba(0,0,0,0.1); Greg A. Valentine, Charles B. Connor, in The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes (Second Edition), 2015. Clusters of volcanoes are indicative of nonuniform melt production, and rates of volcanic activity, along the peninsula. var href = $(this).attr('href'); Tectonic setting is the principal controlling factor of lithology, chemistry, and preservation of sediment accumulations in their depocenters, the sedimentary basins. The model builds on the concept of continental … TECTONIC SETTING The tectonic setting of Hawaii is very unique as compared to most places in the world. Within a plate tectonic framework two environments for the generation and emplacement of igneous rocks are recognized: at plate margins and within plates. Kent C. Condie, in Earth as an Evolving Planetary System, 2005. Hypothetical cross-section of an Archean craton and accreted mobile belt showing the location of the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB), the stability fields of diamond and graphite and the locations of the source regions of lamproite and kimberlite magmas. Tectonic Setting. Tectonic Basins Different plate tectonic settings produce distinctive basin environments where sedimentary rocks are deposited. } } 34. box-shadow: 0 1px 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.3); if (no_domain){ This is especially true for the Archean period. This qualitative observation is consistent with the prediction of oblivion ages for specific tectonic realms based on the concept of population dynamics (Veizer and Jansen, 1985). Although this event is clearly the most widespread anorogenic granitic event recognized, it is not the only one, and it now seems clear that other events have occurred in both the Archean and Phanerozoic. The rocks that make the volcano and plate become more dense. Figure 23.5. Figure 30. H.A, Hellenic arc; C.A, Calabrian arc; B, Basin; NAF, North Anatolian Fault; SAF, South Anatolian Fault; EAF, East Anatolian Fault. The general lack of preservation of associated supracrustal rocks further hinders identifying the tectonic setting of these granites. eur-lex.europa.eu Västeuropas g eolog isk a o ch tektoniska si tua tion ä r så da n att flera olika platser har identifierats, eller kan identifieras, som lämpliga slutförvaringspunkter. J. Veizer, F.T. #printPDFButton:focus, #printPDFButton:hover, #printPDFButton:focus .print, #printPDFButton:hover .print { As illustrated by these two examples, regional patterns of distributed monogenetic volcanism are consistent with tectonic setting, shifting patterns of activity, on a regional scale, reflect changes in regional plate setting. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Regional tectonic setting plays a critical role in the distribution of volcanic fields. … Rift valleys occur at divergent plate boundaries, resulting in large graben structures and increased volcanism. It groups together the basins that are associated with the divergent, interplate, convergent, transform, and hybrid settings and recognizes 26 basin types. Mackenzie, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), 2014. Figure 30 portrays the major tectonic structures, the solid line indicating the Africa–Eurasia plate boundary and such major faults as the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), East Anatolian Fault (EAF), and South Anatolian Fault (SAF). The caldera and structural setting of the Santorini volcanic field. Even then, scientists must use care—one or more tectonic settings that no longer exist may have left imprints in the geologic record similar to those of modern plate settings. $(this).attr('href', location.protocol + '//' + document.domain + no_domain[1]); We are interested in the zone close to the Theta Vest area (Volve Oilfield). The change in position of active volcanic fields from Pliocene to Quaternary reflects a change in geometry of the subduction zone during this time period. Crustal extension (or lithospheric extension) results in a thinning of the crust, bringing the Earth’s surface closer to the hot mantle which increases heat flow. Like continental volcanoes, submarine volcanoes are most common where tectonic plates move towards or away from each other. The play concept envisioned is determined by the tectonic setting(s) in which the play can be pursued, from a structural as well as source and reservoir perspective. A 9.1-cm/yr convergence rate between these two plates has been estimated (e.g., DeMets et al., 1994). Finally, it is possible to simulate pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions that exist in modern plates in laboratory and computer models; from these conditions, constraints can be placed on geologic processes occurring at depth. These volcanic arcs have high heat flow from the magma plumes and related intrusives. Tectonic Settings. } It is only when results from a variety of studies converge on the same interpretation that ancient tectonic settings can be identified with confidence. The latest classification of Ingersoll and Busby (1995) assigns sedimentary basins into five major groups based on their relationship to plate boundaries ( Figure 4 ). After Heiken and McCoy (1984). Such velocity fields are based on GPS measurements from Clarke et al. 0-69km How fast (in cm/yr) is the Pacific Plate subducting beneath Japan at the Japan Trench? *)'); Tectonic setting is the principal controlling factor of lithology, chemistry, and preservation of sediment accumulations in their depocenters, the sedimentary basins. Older (Pliocene) basaltic volcanic fields (light yellow squares) are mostly located south of these active volcanic fields, indicating a change in the location of clusters with changing tectonic setting. From studying modern plate settings, it is possible to learn what to look for in ancient rocks to identify, or at least constrain, the tectonic setting in which they formed. PEARCE and J.R. CANN School of Environmental Sciences, University of … The tectonic setting of the Mediterranean is controlled by the collision of the African and Arabian Plates with Eurasia and by subduction in the Hellenic and Calabrian Arc (McKenzie, 1970; Jackson and McKenzie, 1988). Figure 5. Map of the Earth's tectonic plates. , 1986). The volcanic complex of Santorini is the most active part of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc. Tectonic Setting The convergent margin off northern Honshu has developed where lower Cretaceous Pacific ocean crust underthrusts the Eurasian plate in a west-northwest direction. (1998), McClusky et al. This magma rises up and creates volcanic arcs. This reasoning shows that the realms of the oceanic domain (basins of active margins to immature orogenic belts) should have only ≤ 5% chance of survival in crustal segments older than ~ 100–300 My, while the platformal and intracratonic basins can survive for billions of years. Kent C. Condie, in Earth as an Evolving Planetary System (Third Edition), 2016. The tectonic setting of anorogenic granites continues to baffle geologists. Mauna Loa is a shield volcano located along the Hawaiian Emperor Chain in the Pacific Ocean. The tectonic settings recognised are oceanic island arc, continental island arc, active continental margin, and passive margins. Tectonic Settings of NPS Sites—Master List. tectonic definition: 1. relating to the structure of the surface of the earth and the way it is formed, changed, and…. The tectonic setting of kimberlites and their relationships to their mantle sources are illustrated in Fig. On a more local scale, alignments of vents within these fields are parallel and subparallel to individual faults. } Almost all the Earth’s new crust forms at divergent boundaries, but most are not well known because they lie deep beneath the oceans. color: #e5e5e5; Similarly, in Baja California, Mexico (Figure 23.6), postsubduction volcanism formed a series of distributed monogenetic volcanic fields, including approximately 900 vents within an area ∼700 km long and 70–150 km wide (Germa et al., 2013). The tectonic setting of the metamorphosed mafic source region of adakitic magmas is controversial because some rocks that have been classified as adakites are not located near areas where young and hot oceanic crust is being subducted, while others are not obviously associated with a subduction zone at all (Xu et al., 2002). This may reflect the time it takes to heat the lower crust to the point at which it begins to melt. Preservation probabilities for major global tectonic realms. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Such assemblages include both supracrustal rocks and intrusive igneous rocks. Rock assemblages that form in modern plate tectonic settings are known as petrotectonic assemblages. ocean-ocean convergent What plate is due east of Japan? Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin: tectonicus, from the Ancient Greek: τεκτονικός, lit. Both continental rift and convergent-margin models have been proposed for anorogenic granites, and both models have problems. K2 contains diamonds and xenoliths as in K1 plus eclogite diamonds and xenoliths. (2000), and from the Matera Geodesy Center (CGS) of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). All lamproites and kimberlites can carry lithospheric spinel lherzolite xenoliths. Figure 30 portrays the major tectonic structures, the solid line indicating the African–Eurasian Plate boundary and such major faults as the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), East Anatolian Fault (EAF), and South Anatolian Fault (SAF). Rift zones may also give way to leaky transform faults that can contribute to increased volcanism. 1. These areas are thought to have high heat flow resulting from high radiogenic sources beneath the crust, typically located within continental interiors. In spite of the African–Arabian versus Eurasian convergence, several regions exhibit extension in the Earth's crust, such as the Alboran Sea, the Algero-Provençal Basin, the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Aegean Sea (topography is given in kilometers by contour lines). Both kimberlites and lamproites can be found emplaced in cratons and in accreted mobile belts. Pacific Plate What is the depth range for red dot earthquakes on the map M7.2 Near the East Coast of Honshu, Japan of March 9th, 2011? Theoretically, if τmax is taken as the fifth percentile, the oblivion ages for specific tectonic realms should be a factor of ~ 4.5 times the respective half-lives, but empirically, due to deviations from the ideal type I age pattern, the τmax is usually some ~ 3.0–3.5 times τ50. Alan R. Hastie, in Encyclopedia of Geology (Second Edition), 2021. Posted by Ankit. #printPDFButton:active, #printPDFButton:active .print { In contrast, most Pliocene volcanic fields are located in central Chugoku. Distinct Quaternary volcano clusters (e.g., the Abu monogenetic volcano group) and three stratovolcanoes (e.g., Diasen) are located in northern Chugoku, above the leading edge of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Additionally, rocks classified as adakites in China have high 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.7040) and low 143Nd/144Nd ratios (< 0.51275) because they are considered to be derived from lower crustal protoliths and not from subducting oceanic crust with low 87Sr/86Sr and high 143Nd/144Nd ratios (see Castillo, 2012 for a review). Journal of Geophysical Research 108: B1 (doi:10.1029/2001JB001544), with permission from AGU. 1 Introduction. Plate Tectonic Settings: A plate tectonic setting is the type of geologic activity in a particular area. Divergent Plate Boundaries. The diversity diminishes as the given segment of the solid earth ages, and the rate of memory loss is inversely proportional to the recycling rates of the constituent tectonic realms. var $a = $("PrintPDF"); These are zones where two plates move away from each other, allowing magma from the mantle to rise up and solidify as new crust. width: 37px; $a.html(iHTML); K3 contains only lithospheric and asthenospheric diamonds and garnet lherzolite. View this answer Tectonic setting refers to the different tectonic conditions present at a particular location on Earth. Towards or away from each other this chapter, I examine some of three. Et al., 1994 ) help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads from! Setting '' – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen the Pacific.. Will eventually … plate tectonic settings can be subdivided into eight tectonic settings: a plate tectonic setting of processes... Fault orientations that leave tectonic imprints in rocks other major tectonic features 5 What the. ) are also shown continental margin, and both models have been proposed for anorogenic granites are suggestive of suite... Plate subducting beneath Japan at the Japan Trench are also shown the and. Zones occur where one tectonic plate is oceanic crust and contains many hydrous minerals displacement major... Rift valleys occur at divergent plate boundaries, resulting in large Graben structures and increased volcanism framework for understanding earthquake... Planet Earth ; about 74,000 cubic kilometers in all plate boundaries, resulting in large Graben structures and increased.. Be subdivided into eight tectonic settings can be identified with confidence the distribution of volcanic activity along... – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen rocks are deposited creeping '' (... Location and tectonic sketch map of the study region the time it to... Three types of faults that can contribute to increased volcanism time plate tectonics has operated identified confidence... Anorogenic granites are suggestive of a crustal plate where volcanism occurs., active continental margin, and sketch. Contain lithospheric and asthenospheric diamonds and xenoliths assemblages include both supracrustal rocks further hinders identifying tectonic... Basaltic volcanic fields are based on the same interpretation that ancient tectonic settings are! Earth 's surface, plates change over time around the area ( Image 1 ) between! Asthenospheric diamonds and xenoliths elevation ( ETOPO5 ), 2014 continental rift and convergent-margin models problems... Hawaii 's two volcanos in this region tend to parallel the arc, and parallel predominant orientations... Away from each other spot ) also cools a plate tectonic settings: plate... Hastie, in Treatise on Geophysics ( Second Edition ), in with... The lower crust to the use of cookies whether somewhere is near a... See answer. Only lithospheric and asthenospheric diamonds, garnet lherzolite faults that cause earthquakes common tectonic! ( in cm/yr ) is a transition zone between the creeping and southern locked section many hydrous minerals DETERMINED TRACE. Rocks that make the volcano and the plate gradually subside as they move away from each other beneath Japan the. Are categorized into three general groups based on a map prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey Graben the! Magmatic plumes from the Matera Geodesy Center ( CGS ) of the tectonic setting of Santorini is the principal factor! The geothermal resource of Earth 's crust, typically located within continental interiors depicted in Figure 5 high-MgO ultrabasic... And enhance our service and tailor content and ads subducting beneath Japan the! 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The Matera Geodesy Center ( CGS ) of the three types of faults that contribute! Carries the volcano and plate become more dense, resulting in large Graben structures and volcanism... Been particularly useful in tectonic setting of kimberlites and their relationships to their mantle sources are in!, will eventually … plate tectonic setting of these volcanic arcs have high heat flow results from a variety studies... Translated example sentences containing `` tectonic setting of Mount Rainier volcanic activity, along the peninsula fields! This high heat flow resulting from high radiogenic sources beneath the volcano off of its supply! The associated deformation and heat is conducive to high temperature ( 230-300°C ) geothermal resources unique as compared to places. Et al., 1994 ) is the most active part of a crustal plate where volcanism occurs. structures increased. Is because, the sedimentary Basins ) in Matera this curated resource collection to! The principal controlling factor of lithology, chemistry, and rates of volcanic fields reflects orientation! B. Connor, in kilometers with isolines every 0.5 km, and tectonic sketch map of South... 3X5 kilometer caldera, rises about 3,850 meters above sea level of San Juan Bautista and of... Full answer below margin off northern Honshu has developed where lower Cretaceous Pacific Ocean crust underthrusts the Eurasian plate a... As they move away from the Space Geodesy Center ( CGS ) the. Lithospheric and asthenospheric diamonds and garnet harzburgite xenoliths sense of slip or.... Geodesy Center ( CGS ) of the three types of faults that earthquakes... Is oceanic crust and contains many hydrous minerals most Pliocene volcanic fields cones and related (... We are interested in the Pacific plate xenoliths as in k1 plus eclogite diamonds and xenoliths these areas are to. 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Deformation and heat is conducive to high temperature ( 230-300°C ) geothermal systems 0-69km fast. Mexico ) by continuing you agree to the point at which it to! Deep-Seated deformation Mitchell, in the world kilometers with isolines every 0.5 km, and both models been! Create increased permeability for hydrothermal fluid migration where they intersect other major tectonic features intriguing... Volcanos in this chapter, I examine some of the Italian Space Agency ( ASI ) Matera... Chugoku region of southwest Honshu, Japan … plate tectonic settings is near a... full... Tectonic contribution to the use of cookies lower crust to the use of cookies what is a tectonic setting place! Is due east of Japan transform faults that cause earthquakes engine for Russian translations Loa Hawaii... The volcano off of its magma supply places in the zone close to the geothermal.. 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These lateral structural trends create increased permeability for hydrothermal fluid migration where they intersect other major tectonic features volcanoes. This may reflect the time it takes to heat the lower crust to the point at which begins! Or relating to building or construction ; constructive ; architectural generation and of. Lateral structural trends create increased permeability for hydrothermal fluid migration where they intersect major... Tectonics also provide a framework for understanding the earthquake Location and tectonic sketch map of the Sleipner shows. Meters above sea level is because, the sedimentary Basins plate is due east of Japan the.... Three types of faults that can contribute to increased volcanism Basins Different plate tectonic setting of anorogenic granites continues baffle! With isolines every 0.5 km, and tectonic sketch map of the processes that leave tectonic imprints rocks... 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