However, my Barny does not have the yellow legs they're supposed to have and nor are her eggs dark brown. Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment. Penedesenca and Empordanesa chickens lay the darkest brown of any brown egg layers. The Double Laced is the most popular variety in the UK today. Barnevelders have unique brown and black feathers that are in an arrowhead pattern. The chestnut double laced, silver double laced, blue double laced and black. Black came as a sport from the partridge. These chickens are gorgeous with greenish-black and dark gold feathers. Good examples are very rare and stunning. The Barnevelder Developed in the Barnveld area of the Netherlands to produce a hen that was both hardy and would produce brown eggs. Also If you are looking at re-creating any of the breeds you will need to quite a lot of your own research as the birds used in the production of others are heresay reporting or in some cases guesswork.Â. The breed was first recognized by the American Standard of Perfection in 1991. It is sought after for its dark "chocolate" brown eggs. This feather patterning is the most distinguishing characteristic of the breed. Bred in Barneveld, Netherlands in the late 19th / early 20th century. This is the most widely known type. Only the females express the double-laced pattern, whereas the males are melanized black-breasted reds. The females being haplozygous are hatched brown striped and grow up greyish brown. Barnevelder is quite rare in the USA although they are quickly becoming sought after for the dark brown nutritious eggs. So I guess there's some other type of chicken in her family tree. One particular strain of brown egg laying fowl were similar to Black Cochins in appearance and were kept as a meat birds. While the large Barnevelder became famous for their dark brown eggs, the bantam rarely produces anything darker than cream eggs. This is how I re-created the Silver Double Laced Large fowl Barnevelder. When crushed, the leaves give The sexes can be readily identified at birth. Developed in the first years of the new millennium by Dutch breeder Bert Beugelsdijk from crosses of double-laced Barnevelder bantams and Silver-pencilled Wyandotte bantams. The Barnevelder chickens are good winter layers and have a quiet disposition. And the resulting Barnevelder chickens are indeed hardy and vigorous egg layers. The bantam is the smaller size and in the case of barnevelders is roughly one third of the weight of the large fowl. Let us know in the comments below! Black evolved as a sport in the Netherlands and is recognized in Europe. Descriptions of the ‘Shanghai fowl’ at the time of their arrival in Europe and The United States rarely mention eggshell colour. Although shown at a major agricultural show in The Hague in 1911, their lack of external uniformity earned the disrespect of the show circuit. READ MORE: Heritage Chicken Breeds Are Disappearing and Here's Why They Are Worth Saving. Currently, there are several color varieties of this breed: black, white, partridge, silver with a dark border (grown by an English breeder named Chris Milward), there is also a variety with a blue border of feathers, but the classic dark brown color is still the most popular plumage. The first record of the bantam was from the Utrecht show in 1921 when Mr Van Dyk won the class. I have some experience with the breed: The Barnevelder hen in my flock is the queen of our coop, as shown in the picture below. In standard-sized birds, the pattern is expressed on a brown (e^b/e^b) background. This beautiful bird is … These outlets may even have more than the standard color for this breed. Often the rarer types are poor examples of the breed. The breed was developed in the 1850's by crossing the local fowl with imported breeds from the east. Dark brown. Recognised in 2013. A Rare Chicken Breed is Gaining Popularity. As such, the area became the hub of the poultry industry in the early twentieth century.The area was known for supplying eggs to Europe and the egg supply market was huge. Eggs. Bred from Bantam Black Barnevelders, Bantam Rhode Island Reds and Bantam New Hampshires in Germany. This article was updated on November 13, 2018, ABOUT AND CONTACT US - Admin@barnevelders.net, The National Poultry show - what to expect, re-created the Silver Double Laced Large fowl Barnevelder, Dictionary of Poultry words and terminology. The hens’ body feathers are dark gold with greenish black lacing. Most of the dates may not be particularly accurate, unless official ratification dates by poultry standards. Do you think the Barnevelder would make a good addition to your flock? It also shares the ability of the large fowl Barnevelder as a good winter layer. Dark brown (Bantam) - Recognized in 1987 in Germany. The Barnevelder chicken is a calm, friendly and curious breed of chicken that can be the perfect addition to your flock. The alternately arranged leaves are oblong to lance-shaped (2.5 to 11 cm long and 1.5 to 3 cm wide). Despite their stunning color patterns “Barnies” retain a reputation as a docile and productive breed. 11. Their external appearance was standardized in 1921 with the creation of the Dutch Barnevelder Club. Barnevelder Chicken Adventures. The Lakenvelder chicken breed dates back to the 1830’s in Germany. Bred from Black Barnevelder and Blue Niederrheiner. You could probably find some varieties of Barnevelder at most live poultry outlets and farms. The Barnevelder Club of the Netherlands recognizes the double-laced, double-laced blue, black, and white varieties in both large fowl and bantam versions. The weight of the cock bird should be between  3.2 and  3.6Kg and the hen or dam between 2.7 and 3.2Kg. There are large fowl as well as bantam versions of most of the different colours. Barnevelder Originating from Holland, the Barnevelder is a placid bird. Chicken Breed Information - Barnevelder - The Barnevelder originates from the Barneveld region of Holland and is so well-known that, according to the Barnevelder Club of North America, the Barnevelder name is synonymous with the word chicken. Only the females express the double-laced pattern, whereas the males are melanized black-breasted reds. Barnevelder is part of ... fowl as well as bantam versions of most of the different varieties. As a result, they were bred to lay large chocolate colored eggs. Heritage Chicken Breeds Are Disappearing and Here's Why They Are Worth Saving, 15+ Popular Stores You Didn't Know Were Dog Friendly, Pets Becoming Fake Service Dogs is a Serious Problem, Separation Anxiety in Dogs: 6 Breeds That Hate Being Alone, New Giant Mattress Is 12 Feet Across, Perfect for All the Pets. Only the females express the double-laced pattern, whereas the males are melanized black-breasted reds. This breed was first exhibited in England in 1902 and was admitted to the American Standard of Perfection in 1939. Recognized in Germany in 1988. The barnevelder breed was standardised in 1921. The double-laced, black, white, autosexing barred, dark brown, chamois, double-laced blue, and silver-black double-laced varieties have large fowl and bantam versions. The combination of good looks and status as extremely rare sold me on the Barnevelder chicken. The autosexing barnevelder was produced by adding the barring gene to a good strain by a repeated system of backcrossing. The males are homozygous for the gene and are hatched whiteish and grow up light barred. This chicken breed is available mainly in black color with dark brown striped feathers. Primary use: dual-purpose meat/eggs Egg production (annual): 200 Egg size: Large Temperament: Good natured Recognized variety stocked:Brown - two rings of glossy green/black lacing on nut-brown background. Several color-varieties are recognized for this bird that include; black, double laced and silver-laced. Later they were standardized to double-laced plumage. Egg Color and Size Cold Hardy Behavior Brooding/Best Coop Recommendation Egg Laying The APA also supports two active Facebook groups. Bred from Black Barnevelders and Bantam White Wyandottes in Germany. More than a dozen Barnevelder varieties in large fowl and bantam have been developed. Partridge (large fowl) - Partridge Barnevelders were still kept in Britain in the 1990s, possibly still derived from early imports. The Barnevelders are medium heavy dual-purpose chickens laying a good number of eggs but also yielding a reasonable carcass. The double-laced bird is the most popular and original variety of the breed, making it very common and the easiest to source. The Barnevelder originates from the Barneveld region of Holland evolved from landrace poultry. This beautiful bird is … Double Laced Barnevelder | Cheshire Poultry Breeder | Double Laced Barnevelder Info . Below: Bantam Barnevelder eggs. Breeders started first with single-laced feathers, and then developed the double lacing the breed is known for today. Isabel is the term for Lavender diluting the gold in patterned colors like lacing and partridge . Black markings bear a green sheen. The eggs are said to be dark chocolate and occasionally speckled. The standard gold double laced  or the Chestnut barnevelder as it is now known in the UK seems to be the most common kept here. Hens typically lay 180-200 eggs per year, and the carcasses of the birds are full and meaty. https://www.barnevelders.net/types-and-colours-of-barnevelders.html 1934. ... To produce these green eggs the hen needs to have parentage of a dark brown layer (Barnevelder, Copper Marans, Pendesenca) and then a blue layer, or Ameracauna). This beautiful bird is hardy and quiet and doesn't mind being confined. They … Mrs Mainwaring is credited with the production of the English bantams during the 1920’s and won several prises with them at shows in the north of England in 1928. I have never seen a bantam Barnevelder that lays a dark egg, the best mine produce is a speckled cream tinted one. The original and most well known Barnevelder chicken is the double laced variety with a single vertical comb and yellow legs, but white, black, brown, partridge, blue and double laced blue varieties also exist. And which of the Barnevelder ancestors laid dark brown eggs? The breed was first recognized by the American Standard of Perfection in 1991. Bred from a 'petite' double-laced hen and a Bantam Rhode Island Red cock, followed by crossings with Bantam Golden-laced Wyandottes, Bantam German Langshan, and Bantam Indian Game (Cornish).Â, It is unlikely that pre-war bantams either laid brown or survived the Second World War but when peace returned breeding continued with the production of black and white bantam Barnevelders between 1954 and 1960 by crossing with Wyandotte’s and then breeding to remove the rose comb.Â. It has an upright carriage, a graceful long neck, a high-set saddle and a full tail. The Barnevelder Developed in the Barnveld area of the Netherlands to produce a hen that was both hardy and would produce brown eggs. There are many different varieties of the breed that may be recognised depending on the region. The Barnevelder originates from the Barneveld region of Holland and is so well-known that, according to the Barnevelder Club of North America, the Barnevelder name is synonymous with the word chicken. History: From 1910, the name Barnevelder chicken was coined for the improved local hens that laid large dark brown eggs. Their eggs are a unique dark chocolate color. A Bantam cock's ideal weight is 920g  and the hen should be around 750g. The original and most well known Barnevelder is the double laced variety with a single vertical comb and yellow legs, but white, black, brown, partridge, blue and double laced blue varieties also exist. They do exist although I have never found them popular. The Barnevelder chicken was developed from a number of breeds specifically the … Roosters weigh about 6-7 pounds and hens weigh 5-6 pounds. England wanted brown shelled eggs at tha… The beautiful and hardy Barnevelder chicken has a lovely lace-like brown and black feather pattern that cannot be missed. Despite the appearance of new ones, the brown shade remains the most common. Cross of the Silver and blue double laced. Instead of a brown-red hue, blue is often found. A friendly and quiet bird that is good for homes with close neighbors. While the Barnevelder chicken isn’t as popular as it was a good few years ago, it is a surprisingly popular breed for homesteaders because of its dark brown eggs. Hover over the image for more information: The beautiful Barnevelder chicken breed is a rare breed. The Barnevelder chicken originates from the Barneveld region of Holland and known for laying a dark brown egg. Facebook 0 Twitter 0 Linkedin 0 Pinterest 0 Email 0 Print 0. The colors to be accepted into the standard of perfection are autosexing barred, dark brown, partridge, chamois, blue, and silver varieties. Occasionally occurring recessive white birds were crossed with white Plymouth Rocks and White Leghorn to produce White Barnevelders. The dark brown lace-patterned feathers of these hardy birds are stunning. The breed has a typical color, (Color Variety) with most notable the brown and black double laced feathers, where the base color is brown with black edges on top. The breed was recognized in 1923 when the double-laced standard was admitted to the Dutch Poultry Club. Black, partridge and silver varieties are also recognised. Appears to be a recognised variety in the British & Australian Poultry Standards. Bred from Black Barnevelders and Bantam Black Wyandottes in Germany. Varieties. Barnevelder … The original and most well-known Barnevelder variety is the double-laced variety, which has a single vertical comb and yellow legs, but other varieties also exist. Also recognized in New Zealand Poultry Standards 2013. The Barnevelder chicken is a cross of local Dutch chickens with Asian breeds such as the Brahma, Cochin, Croad Langshan and Malay. Several color-varieties are recognized for this bird that include; black, double laced and silver-laced. Black Plymouth Rock and Black Wyandottes were crossed in to achieve pure black. These large brown eggs have sturdy shells, and Barnevelder.net reports that the dark egg shell color gradually lightens over the course of the season. Seeing all the different breeds and varieties, talking with exhibitors is a fun adventure and guaranteed to keep you occupied for a few hours. The most common, and only APA recognized, Double-laced variety gets its name from the hens’ reddish-brown feathers, with two lustrous black lines, one at the outer border and a second closer to the shaft. The Barnevelder has orange eyes with yellow legs and feet. Barnevelder Chicken (Photo By Air55) (CC BY-SA 3.0) All of the autosexing barnevelders are now extinct. I love this breed as they lay well are very friendly and have beautiful feathering. Sometimes also called the double silver double blue. A bantam version is also available for the Barnevelder. This beautiful bird has a single comb, is hardy and quiet and doesn’t mind being confined. Available in silver and gold. Barnevelder hens are good layers of large eggs (200+ dark brown eggs per year), and may go broody too. Barnevelder: The Layer Of Copper Eggs . The color of Barnevelder chicken’s egg is light brown. Their dark brown eggs were the chief attractions. Although when using the Wyandotte several years would be required to dispose of the rose comb. This lacing forms a pretty "lace-like" pattern. The beer is generally dark amber to brown in color, of medium alcoholic strength. Barnevelders come in a considerable number of variations in both the bantam and large fowl. Double-laced Barnevelders are now the only recognized variety by the American Poultry Association, but other colors are formally recognized in Europe. See more ideas about Barnevelder chicken, Chickens, Chickens backyard. Partridge Barnevelders were some of the first color variations to be created. There was always a little brown until they were crossed with pure black breeds lie the black Plymouth or Wyandotte. Content Features German hop varieties are typically used. German strain appeared in 1922 by crossing undersized Barnevelders with other bantams and were exhibited from 1927 to the 1930’s. I have kept a trio purely for nostalgic reasons and I have never seen any others. The breed has since been refined, and even more intricate patterns have been bred. Barnevelder forage well and are very easy to tame and as such make excellent pets as well as eggs producers. The breed has since been refined, and even more intricate patterns have been bred. Leaves are glossy dark yellow-green, thick, and leathery. By Neil Armitage Published on November 13, 2018. They are hardy birds and good foragers. The Barnevelder chicken breed has a lovely shiny color to their plumage and lays coppery brown eggs. The original and most widely available is the double laced variety. The branches are spreading to drooping, the buds sharply pointed and the bark is very thick, fluted, ridged, rough and dark brown.  Barnevelder large fowl are a big well filled bird with pleasing curves.Â. The needles are dark green or blue green, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, soft to the touch and radiate out in … Recognised in 2009.Â. The original and most well-known Barnevelder variety is the double-laced variety, which has a single vertical comb and yellow legs, but other varieties also exist. I would not hesitate to add more Barnevelders to my flock. Light colors: white, with light cream or silver colors. The breed originated in Holland and is named after the Dutch town Barneveld. The original and most well known Barnevelder is the double laced variety with a single vertical comb and yellow legs, but white, black, brown, partridge, blue and double laced blue varieties also exist. Place of origin: The Netherlands : Use: Dual-purpose: Weight: Standard, male: 3.2 – 3.6 kg. This lacing forms a pretty "lace-like" pattern. Blue Laced, Black, Partridge and Silver have been bred but are rarely encountered. In standard-sized birds, the pattern is expressed on a brown (e^b/e^b) background. Extremely rare and critically endangered - the Buckeye is the only recognized chicken line that was bred by a woman (Nettie Metcalf) in 1896 -- from the Buckeye State of Ohio. The breed was recognised in 1923. Not all countries recognize all these varieties in their Poultry Standards. The double laced became much more popular and is still so today. Recognized in 1931 in Germany. Their wings are quite high on their body and they do not fly particularly well. Left: A buff Shanghai cock in 1853, drawn by Harrison Weir (UK). This is a red-white color, not recognized in the Netherlands, but officially approved in the UK. Ancona Chickens Not all countries recognize all these varieties in their Poultry Standards. The most common Barnevelder feather pattern in the United States—and the only variety recognized by the American Poultry Association (APA)—is the Double Laced variety. Dutch breeders developed the double-laced Barnevelder chicken in the early 20th century in the Netherlands, crossing with the Langshan chicken. They are recognized as one of the continental breeds by APA. They have always had a tendency to be dark and a few people had the idea to select the darker birds and selectively breed a black variety, as they were too dark for show and normal breeding programmes. There are four recognised varieties in the UK. Double-laced is the only color accepted by the American Poultry Association. Stock was imported to England in 1921 when dark brown eggs were very popular. California common is the recognized designation for the sometimes disputed style by the Beer Judge Certification Program, which oversees … Partridge Barnevelders were still kept in Britain in the 1990s, possibly still derived from early imports. Although, more on that in a short while. Ryan B. Walden, Wisconsin – It was the winter of 2007, I had been chickenless for several months, and the snow was deep. I adore keeping these birds, they are so happy and docile wandering around my fields.They are not the most prolific layers, or have the biggest eggs, but the quality of the eggs is really high, mine lay an average of 183 in their first year.Â. They are hardy birds and good foragers. The original and most well known Barnevelder is the double laced variety with a single vertical comb and yellow legs, but white, black, brown, partridge, blue and double laced blue varieties also exist. But those cannot be easily obtained from chicken breeders primarily because bantams are not officially recognized. There are a great many types of barnevelder , alot of them are in the hands of dedicated breeders and not really readily obtainable . Later these became the Cochins, which can already be seen in the fluffy hens in background. According to Hans Schippers, the Dutch authority on the Barnevelder breed, development of this breed started around 1850 and 1875 when Cochin, Malay, Brahma and Croad Lanshan chickens arrived from Asia and were crossed with local fowl. Representatives of the breed were obtained by crossing several other varieties. A very nice chicken with beautiful feathers (mine is double-laced gold). Cackle Hatchery® has the Silver Lakenvelder variety of this breed of chicken. Cackle Hatchery®’s Barnevelders breeding stock will produce feathering of partridge single laced and double laced feather … March 14, 2019 Author : Backyard Poultry Contributor Categories : Chickens 101. The Open APA group is open to anyone interested in poultry and wants to learn more, the Official APA group is specifically for members of the APA. The Barnevelder Club of the Netherlands recognizes the double-laced, double-laced blue, black, and white varieties in both large fowl and bantam versions. The Barnevelder might be a little hard to track down, but it's worth finding a source for this dual-purpose, dark-brown-egg layer to add to your chicken coops! Not all countries recognize all these varieties in their Poultry Standards. Barnevelder dark brown well adaptable to confinement or free range; calm, docile mixed brooding Best Coop: 67" Farmhouse Wooden Chicken Coop with Display Top, Run Area and Nesting Box excellent. Their initial attraction was their high numbers of large brown eggs. Some of them lay a high number of eggs and other breeds function as both a meat and an egg chicken. These varieties were also introduced into Holland in the 19th century and will have undoubtedly been crossed here and there with local fowl. The colors to be accepted into the standard of perfection are autosexing barred, dark brown, partridge, chamois, blue, and silver varieties. This wide ranging species grows from 70 to 250 feet tall. Recognized in 1987 in Germany. It is sought after for its dark "chocolate" brown eggs. / Female: 6 Ibs. The most common Barnevelder feather pattern in the United States—and the only variety recognized by the American Poultry Association (APA)—is the Double Laced variety. Welsummer chickens are unique because they are a dark brown color with darker speckles. She is full of personality though and loves to dig. It is sought after for its dark "chocolate" brown eggs. The Barnevelder breed of chicken is of quiet and hardy nature, popular for their dark brown eggs. Two varieties were eventually standardised, the double laced and partridge or ‘stippled’. If you are looking for Barnevelder chickens for sale in the United States, try locating a breeder through the Barnevelder Club of North America (there is another club in Holland if you are not in the states). As a result, it was possible to get strong, relatively large chickens with a compact and robust build. The feathers are dark brown, with black lacing. Not so long ago in England appeared chickens, in which the silver-black color. Our chickens for sale are expertly packaged and safely shipped as day old chicks to anywhere in the contiguous United States. While a full list of colours is available below, some of these different colours may not be available in your region as they are very rare only bred by dedicated breeders. This beautiful bird has a single comb, is hardy and quiet and doesn't mind being confined. Recognized Varieties: Double-laced, Black, White, Autosexing barred, Dark brown, Partridge, Double-laced Blue, Blue, Silver, Silver-black double-laced : Egg production (annual): 180 : Egg color: Light brown : Egg size: Large : Comb type: – The Bantam breed of Barnevelder gained recognition because it was easy to keep and produced 160-180 good sized eggs per year. Only one of the four coloured varieties are accepted by the American Poultry Association. However, when the Dutch Poultry Club discussed whether to accept the Barnevelder as a new breed in 1919, it was found to be too variable. Dark brown (large fowl) Recognized in 1982 in Germany. Barnevelders are characterized by having single combs, red earlobes, and bright-yellow legs. To date, continue to appear new colors. The main goal in breeding the Barnevelder was to create a breed that would lay prolific amounts of very dark brown copper-tinged eggs and continue laying well despite the long cold and dark Northern European winter. Chickens For Sale Fancy Chickens Barnevelder Chicken Chicken Breeds Chicken Coops Hen Games Game Birds Coq Hens. They like there own company and rarely if ever squabble, mine even share nests and brooding without any fuss. All of my other birds (Anconas and barred Plymouth Rocks) respect her, despite her gentle disposition. The most common, and only APA recognized, Double-laced variety gets its name from the hens’ reddish-brown feathers, with two lustrous black lines, one at the outer border and a second closer to the shaft. But, brown eggs aren’t the only amazing thing about these breeds. The Barnevelder chicken is a medium heavy breed of chicken named after the Dutch town of Barneveld. Recognized in Germany in 1997. The Barnevelder chicken was developed from Dutch landrace and Asiatic chickens for their large brown eggs. Bred from Black Barnevelders, Rhode Island Reds and New Hampshires in Germany. This breed is also known for its good egg laying habits. The best chicken breeds for dark brown eggs are: Barnevelder; Empordanesa; Maran; Penedesenca; Welsummer; Click to skip to a particular breed: Barnevelder Chickens: Beautiful Chocolate Eggs. Barnevelders are a fantastic Dutch breed, originating from the town of Barneveld in the Netherlands. Barny does not have the yellow barnevelder recognized variety dark brown they 're supposed to have and nor are her dark... Both the Bantam rarely produces anything darker than cream eggs them myself a... 1987 in Germany great many types of Barnevelder gained recognition because it was easy to tame and as make... Rooster and large fowl Barnevelder chicks and Poultry books at great prices for the gene and are very,! Rarely if ever squabble, mine even share nests and brooding without fuss! About Barnevelder chicken breed is also available for the gene and are very active, friendly and breed... Of local Dutch chickens with a compact and robust build color of Barnevelder gained recognition it.: continental / Bantam: not recognized size: male: 7 Ibs male 3.2... Twitter 0 Linkedin 0 Pinterest 0 Email 0 Print 0 the Barneveld region of Holland evolved from landrace Poultry hatching..., it was possible to get strong, relatively large chickens with a modestly rounded back line backyard chicken?... Find of the continental breeds by APA appearance was standardized in 1921 with Langshan... A buff Shanghai cock in 1853, drawn by Harrison Weir ( UK.! These varieties were eventually standardised, the Bantam is the term for Lavender the... Shows in a short while Netherlands: Use: dual-purpose: weight: Standard, male: Ibs! Very easy to keep and produced 160-180 good sized eggs per year,! Add more Barnevelders to my flock Barnveld area of the birds are full meaty! Than the Standard color for this bird that include ; black, ending with modestly... Double-Laced gold ) often found origin: the Netherlands: Use: dual-purpose weight... Dark amber to brown in color, of medium alcoholic strength strong, relatively large chickens with Asian breeds as... They became famous for their dark brown eggs per year, and may go broody.. Reds and Bantam have been developed Reds and Bantam have been produced since by cross breeding, including a version... During the winter ) which can already be seen in the Netherlands no doubt, crossed with white Rocks! Respect her, despite her gentle disposition feather has rings of glossy green/black on. And silver-laced find of the cock bird should be between â 3.2 and 3.6Kg and United! Been in no doubt, crossed with the aid of autosexing Bantam Bielefelder white to... Remains the most widely known type ( UK ) there 's some other type of chicken named the... Chicken breed has since been refined, and then developed the double-laced Barnevelder cock and Bantam! Large chickens with a live guarantee from our NPIP suppliers to your flock s Germany. Blue laced, blue double laced Barnevelder | Cheshire Poultry breeder | double laced ( 1931.. Body and they do not fly particularly well laced feather pattern that can be the perfect addition your. 200+ dark brown eggs, but the eggs are a dark brown nutritious.! Hen that was both hardy and quiet bird that include ; black, ending with a final black.! 20Th century in the 1990s, possibly still derived from early imports plumage and lays coppery brown eggs aren t.